Thursday, May 24, 2012

Integrated Cross-border Law Enforcement Operations Act

We shall be Canadians first, foremost, and always, and our policies will be decided in Canada and not dictated by any other country.

John G. Diefenbaker

It is sensible to have cooperation for border security issues with our major trading partner and ally, the United States. Making such cooperation as seamless as possible is a good idea, especially as borders generally are ignored by criminals.

What's more, I respect the US Coast Guard and the FBI -- they are both highly trained and professional organizations. They operate to US Constitutional standards which, in some ways (at least inside the United States) are more protective of rights than Canadian standards (for example the American confession rule is much stricter than ours). Indeed, I would see no issue with Canada jointly appointing specific American police as adjunct RCMP officers.

But but but, the Integrated Cross-border Law Enforcement Operations Act does not do that. Rather the Americans appoint someone who then "has the same power to enforce an Act of Parliament as a member of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police when

(a) participating in an integrated cross-border operation; or

(b) engaging in an activity incidental to such an operation, including travel for the purpose of participating in the operation and appearances in court arising from the operation." (Section 12).
So American police, say going to Court in Vancouver, have arrest powers in Canada and those powers, albeit it approved by Canadian statute, come from their American appointment.

A basic principle of sovereignty is that the State has a monopoly on the use of force. Giving up that monopoly means giving up sovereignty. Sovereignty lost is hard to regain; more, a state with limited sovereignty is at best a vassal.

Now I agree, this is a small step but it is a dangerous one.

Even the RCMP, which backs the legislation, recognizes it raises significant concerns. "We recognized early that this approach would raise concerns about sovereignty, of privacy, and civil liberties of Canadians," RCMP Chief Superintendent Joe Oliver told the Senate Committee on National Security and Defence on May 14, 2012.

He continued, "we said 'Let's take baby steps, let's start with two agencies to test the concept, let's demonstrate to Canadians and Americans that such an approach might work."

Where does this go? I am concerned we may eventually see FBI and DEA agents having the ability to pursue suspects across the land border and into Canada. And then American policies are imposed in Canada.

Remember the camel's nose:

'It is the humble petition of the camel, who only asks that he may put his nose into the traveler's tent. It is so pitiful, so modest, that we must needs relent and grant it.'

The moral of the fable?

'It is a wise rule to resist the beginnings of evil.'

Part of the statute (which is buried in the budget bill) is set out below:


SHORT TITLE
TITRE ABRÉGÉ
Short title

1. This Act may be cited as the Integrated Cross-border Law Enforcement Operations Act.
1. Loi sur les opérations transfrontalières intégrées de contrôle d'application de la loi.
Titre abrégé

INTERPRETATION
DÉFINITIONS
Definitions

2. The following definitions apply in this Act.
"Agreement"
« accord »

"Agreement" means the Framework Agreement on Integrated Cross-Border Maritime Law Enforcement Operations between the Government of Canada and the Government of the United States of America signed on May 26, 2009.
"designated officer"
« agent désigné »

"designated officer" means an individual appointed as a cross-border maritime law enforcement officer by

(a) the Central Authority for Canada under subsection 7(1) or 8(1); and

(b) the person designated as the Central Authority for the United States for the application of the Agreement.
"integrated cross-border operation"
« opération transfrontalière intégrée »

"integrated cross-border operation" means the deployment of a vessel crewed jointly by designated officers from Canada and the United States for cross-border law enforcement purposes in undisputed areas of the sea or internal waters along the international boundary between Canada and the United States.
2. Les définitions qui suivent s'appliquent à la présente loi.
Définitions

« accord » L'Accord cadre sur les opérations intégrées transfrontalières maritimes d'application de la loi entre le gouvernement du Canada et le gouvernement des États-Unis d'Amérique, conclu le 26 mai 2009.
« accord »
"Agreement"

« agent désigné » Personne physique nommée à titre d'agent chargé du contrôle transfrontalier maritime de l'application de la loi par l'autorité centrale du Canada en vertu des paragraphes 7(1) ou 8(1) et par la personne désignée comme autorité centrale des États-Unis pour la mise en oeuvre de l'accord.
« agent désigné »
"designated officer"

« opération transfrontalière intégrée » Déploiement d'un bateau dont l'équipage se compose d'agents désignés du Canada et des États-Unis pour le contrôle transfrontalier de l'application de la loi dans les zones non contestées de la mer ou des eaux internes longeant la frontière internationale entre le Canada et les États-Unis.
« opération transfrontalière intégrée »
"integrated cross-border operation"

PURPOSE
OBJET
Purpose

3. The purpose of this Act is to implement the Agreement, the objectives of which are to provide additional means to prevent, detect and suppress criminal offences and violations of the law in undisputed areas of the sea or internal waters along the international boundary between Canada and the United States and to facilitate the investigation and prosecution of such offences and violations.
3. La présente loi a pour objet la mise en oeuvre de l'accord, dont les objectifs consistent à mettre en place des moyens supplémentaires de prévenir, de détecter et de réprimer les infractions criminelles et autres violations de la loi dans les zones non contestées de la mer ou des eaux internes longeant la frontière internationale entre le Canada et les États-Unis, et à faciliter les enquêtes et les poursuites judiciaires à l'égard de ces infractions et violations.
Objet

PRINCIPLES
PRINCIPES
Statement

4. It is recognized and declared that

(a) Canada and the United States have a common interest in the security of the undisputed areas of the sea or internal waters along the international boundary between Canada and the United States;

(b) integrated cross-border operations must

(i) respect the sovereignty of Canada and the United States,

(ii) be conducted in accordance with the rule of law, and

(iii) be conducted as directed by a designated officer from the host country; and

(c) in Canada, integrated cross-border operations must be conducted in a manner respecting the rights and freedoms guaranteed by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
4. Les principes ci-après sont reconnus et proclamés :
Énoncé

a) le Canada et les États-Unis ont un intérêt mutuel pour le maintien de la sécurité dans les zones non contestées de la mer ou des eaux internes longeant la frontière internationale entre le Canada et les États-Unis;

b) les opérations transfrontalières intégrées doivent :

(i) respecter la souveraineté du Canada et des États-Unis,

(ii) s'effectuer dans le respect de la primauté du droit,

(iii) s'effectuer selon les directives d'un agent désigné du pays hôte;

c) les opérations transfrontalières intégrées doivent, au Canada, s'effectuer dans le respect des droits et libertés garantis par la Charte canadienne des droits et libertés.

CENTRAL AUTHORITY FOR CANADA
AUTORITÉ CENTRALE DU CANADA
Designation

5. For the purposes of implementing the Agreement, the Central Authority for Canada is the Commissioner of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police or his or her delegate.
5. Pour la mise en oeuvre de l'accord, l'autorité centrale du Canada est le commissaire de la Gendarmerie royale du Canada ou son délégué.
Désignation

Direction and management

6. The Central Authority for Canada has, in cooperation with the person designated as the Central Authority for the United States for the purposes of implementing the Agreement, responsibility for the direction and management of integrated cross-border operations.
6. L'autorité centrale du Canada assure la direction et la gestion des opérations transfrontalières intégrées, en collaboration avec la personne désignée comme autorité centrale des États-Unis pour la mise en oeuvre de l'accord.
Direction et gestion

Appointment of officers from Canada

7. (1) The Central Authority for Canada may appoint as a cross-border maritime law enforcement officer an individual who is

(a) a member of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police;

(b) a police officer appointed or employed under the law of a province; or

(c) a pilot, co-pilot, observer or other member of the crew of an aircraft that is operated by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police or a police service established under the law of a province and that is used to provide aerial support in an integrated cross-border operation.
7. (1) L'autorité centrale du Canada peut nommer, à titre d'agent chargé du contrôle transfrontalier maritime de l'application de la loi, la personne physique qui remplit l'une ou l'autre des conditions suivantes :
Nomination des agents du Canada

a) elle est membre de la Gendarmerie royale du Canada;

b) elle est agent de police nommé ou employé en vertu d'une loi provinciale;

c) elle est pilote, copilote, observateur ou autre membre d'équipage d'un aéronef qui est exploité par la Gendarmerie royale du Canada ou par un service de police constitué en vertu d'une loi provinciale et qui est utilisé pour fournir des services de soutien aérien dans le cadre d'une opération transfrontalière intégrée.

Criterion for appointment

(2) An individual may be appointed under subsection (1) only if they have satisfactorily completed the required training, approved by the Central Authority for Canada, for appointment as a designated officer.
(2) La personne en cause ne peut être nommée que si elle a réussi la formation des agents désignés qui est agréée par l'autorité centrale du Canada.
Condition préalable

Appointment of officers from United States

8. (1) The Central Authority for Canada may appoint as a cross-border maritime law enforcement officer an individual who is

(a) a commissioned, warrant or petty officer of the United States Coast Guard;

(b) a police officer or other law enforcement officer appointed or employed under the law of the United States or of a state of the United States; or

(c) a pilot, co-pilot, observer or other member of the crew of an aircraft that is operated by the United States Coast Guard or a police service, or other law enforcement agency of the United States or of a state of the United States, and that is used to provide aerial support in an integrated cross-border operation.
8. (1) L'autorité centrale du Canada peut nommer, à titre d'agent chargé du contrôle transfrontalier maritime de l'application de la loi, la personne physique qui remplit l'une ou l'autre des conditions suivantes :
Nomination des agents des États-Unis

a) elle est officier commissionné, adjudant ou officier marinier de la garde côtière des États-Unis;

b) elle est agent de police ou de contrôle d'application de la loi et nommée ou employée en vertu des lois des États-Unis ou de l'un de ses États;

c) elle est pilote, copilote, observateur ou autre membre d'équipage d'un aéronef qui est exploité par la garde côtière des États-Unis ou par un service de police ou un autre organisme de contrôle d'application de la loi des États-Unis ou de l'un de ses États et qui est utilisé pour fournir des services de soutien aérien dans le cadre d'une opération transfrontalière intégrée.

Criteria for appointment

(2) An individual may be appointed under subsection (1) only if

(a) they have been recommended for appointment by the person designated as the Central Authority for the United States for the application of the Agreement; and

(b) they have satisfactorily completed the required training, approved by the Central Authority for Canada, for appointment as a designated officer.
(2) La personne en cause ne peut être nommée que si elle remplit les conditions suivantes :
Conditions préalables

a) sa nomination est recommandée par la personne désignée comme autorité centrale des États-Unis pour la mise en oeuvre de l'accord;

b) elle a réussi la formation des agents désignés qui est agréée par l'autorité centrale du Canada.

Suspension or revocation

9. The Central Authority for Canada may suspend or revoke the appointment of any designated officer.
9. L'autorité centrale du Canada peut suspendre ou révoquer la nomination de tout agent désigné.
Suspension et révocation

Certificates

10. (1) The Central Authority for Canada may issue a certificate to any designated officer stating that the person to whom it is issued is a designated officer for the purposes of this Act.
10. (1) L'autorité centrale du Canada peut délivrer à un agent désigné un certificat attestant que le titulaire a cette qualité pour l'application de la présente loi.
Certificats

Evidence of appointment or designation

(2) Any document purporting to be a certif-icate referred to in subsection (1) is evidence in all courts and in all proceedings of the facts stated in it.
(2) Tout certificat visé au paragraphe (1) et présenté comme tel est admissible en preuve et fait foi de son contenu devant tous les tribunaux et dans toutes les procédures.

POWERS OF DESIGNATED OFFICERS
POUVOIRS DES AGENTS DÉSIGNÉS
Powers — designated officer

12. Every designated officer has the same power to enforce an Act of Parliament as a member of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police when

(a) participating in an integrated cross-border operation; or

(b) engaging in an activity incidental to such an operation, including travel for the purpose of participating in the operation and appearances in court arising from the operation.
12. Tout agent désigné est investi, pour le contrôle d'application des lois fédérales, des pouvoirs d'un membre de la Gendarmerie royale du Canada lorsque, selon le cas :
Pouvoirs d'un agent désigné

a) il participe à une opération transfrontalière intégrée;

b) il accomplit une activité accessoire à une telle opération, notamment il se déplace en vue de participer à l'opération ou comparaît devant un tribunal en lien avec l'opération.

DETENTION OF PERSONS
PERSONNES DÉTENUES
Persons taken into custody

13. (1) The laws of Canada apply to any person detained or taken into custody within Canada in the course of an integrated cross-border operation.
13. (1) Le droit canadien s'applique à la personne détenue ou mise sous garde au Canada dans le cadre d'une opération transfrontalière intégrée.
Traitement

Removal from Canada

(2) No person referred to in subsection (1) may be removed from Canada, except in accordance with the laws of Canada.
(2) La personne ne peut être amenée hors du Canada qu'en conformité avec le droit canadien.
Déplacement hors du Canada

8 comments:

Anonymous said...

Here come the cross-border drones...

Anonymous said...

The last 2 sections are kind of odd. Shouldn't that sort of kidnapping already be illegal?

And why is it "No person referred to in subsection (1)" instead of simply "No person"?

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