Friday, January 18, 2013


R v. Ryan 2013 SCC 3 clarifies the law of duress:

[81] The defence of duress, in its statutory and common law forms, is largely the same. The two forms share the following common elements:

• There must be an explicit or implicit threat of present or future death or bodily harm. This threat can be directed at the accused or a third party.

• The accused must reasonably believe that the threat will be carried out.

• There is no safe avenue of escape. This element is evaluated on a modified objective standard.

• A close temporal connection between the threat and the harm threatened.

• Proportionality between the harm threatened and the harm inflicted by the accused. The harm caused by the accused must be equal to or no greater than the harm threatened. This is also evaluated on a modified objective standard.

• The accused is not a party to a conspiracy or association whereby the accused is subject to compulsion and actually knew that threats and coercion to commit an offence were a possible result of this criminal activity, conspiracy or association.


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Krzysztof said...

Duress ruless!