Rankin Construction Inc. v. Ontario, 2014 ONCA 636:
 Terms may be implied in a contract based on: (1) custom or usage; (2) legal incidents of a class or type of contract; or (3) the presumed intention of the parties, where the term is necessary "to give business efficacy to a contract or as otherwise meeting the 'officious bystander' test as a term which the parties would say, if questioned, that they had obviously assumed": Canadian Pacific Hotels Ltd. v. Bank of Montreal,  1 S.C.R. 711, at p. 775; see also M.J.B. Enterprises, at para. 27; Double N Earthmovers, at para. 30; Martel, at para. 81. Any implied terms must fit and be the necessary implication of the express terms; if there is any evidence against the proposed term, it cannot be implied:M.J.B. Enterprises, at para. 29. In my view, none of the criteria for an implied term prohibiting investigation of allegedly non-compliant bids is made out in this case.