R v Shaw, 2015 ABCA 25:
 A guilty plea constitutes both a formal admission of the elements of the offence as well as a waiver of the procedural requirements and safeguards of a trial. A valid guilty plea promotes the values inherent in the criminal trial process. Although a guilty plea can be vacated by an appellate court, leave must be sought and the appellant bears the onus on both the leave application and the ultimate appeal. A guilty plea should only be vacated in exceptional circumstances: R v Hoang, 2003 ABCA 251 (CanLII), 339 AR 291. Grounds for setting aside a guilty plea focus on whether the plea was voluntary, unequivocal and informed: R v Swanson, 2000 BCCA 177 (CanLII), 136 BCAC 108 at para 23.