Berry v. Pulley, 2015 ONCA 449:
 Canadian courts recognize two types of actionable conspiracy: Pro-Sys Consultants Ltd. v. Microsoft Corp., 2013 SCC 57,  3 S.C.R. 477, at para. 73. The first is predominant purpose conspiracy, also known as conspiracy to injure. This appeal involves the second type, which is known as unlawful means or unlawful act conspiracy.
 As outlined in Agribrands Purina Canada Inc. v. Kasamekas, 2011 ONCA 460, 106 O.R. (3d) 427, at para. 26, a plaintiff must establish the following five elements to succeed on a claim of unlawful act conspiracy:
1) The defendants acted in combination, that is, in concert, by agreement or with a common design;
2) The defendants' conduct was unlawful;
3) The defendants' conduct was directed towards the plaintiff;
4) The defendants should have known that, in the circumstances, injury to the plaintiff was likely to result; and
5) The defendants' conduct caused injury to the plaintiff.