1250264Ontario Inc. v. Pet Valu Canada Inc., 2013 ONCA 279 holds:
 Appellate intervention is warranted where an inference of fact is not supported by any evidence and where an improper inference has a material effect on the outcome: see Housen v. Nikolaisen, 2002 SCC 33,  2 S.C.R. 235, at paras. 22-23. The conclusion reached by the motion judge, at para. 75, that there is "a reasonable probability" that many franchisees decided to opt out due to "unfair pressure amounting to intimidation" is based on the inferences he drew. In my view, these inferences lack a valid evidentiary basis and, given their significance to the outcome of the motion, must be set aside.